"The discovery of abundant ice on 24
Themis may mean that water is much more common in the Main Belt of asteroids
than previously thought. Since Themis is part of an asteroid "family" that was
formed from a large impact and the subsequent fragmentation of a larger body
long ago, this scenario means the parent body also had ice and has deep
implications for how our solar system formed."
Written by Andy Lloyd, 29th April 2010
Nancy Atkinson "Possible Destination? Researchers Find Water Ice
and Organics on Asteroid" 28 April 2010
2010 "Dark Star" Crop Circle
This enigmatic crop circle was found this month in a field of oil seed rape near
Old Sarum, which is near Salisbury in south England.
There is clear Dark
Star symbolism in this pictogram - it depicts a dual solar system with two suns:
the Sun, and the Dark Star with its own seven moons/planets. More
information about the crop circle is available from the Daily Mail website:
Written by Andy Lloyd, 9th May2010
Jessica Satherley "Summer starts today and, bang on cue, the
first crop circle of 2010 pops up" 7 May 2010,
with thanks to Jeffrey
Planets in Different Planes
One of the potential stumbling blocks to the Dark Star Theory, and the concept
of a Planet X body in general, has been something called the
Orbiting bodies inclined to a system plane exchange their inclination for
greater eccentricity over time. This has been confirmed in practice for
satellites, moons, etc. This places restrictions on orbits within a
system, and has been used by sceptics as an argument against a Planet X body
inclined at, say, 30 degrees (as claimed by Sitchin for the hypothetical planet
(Credit: NASA, ESA, and A. Feild (STScI))
More broadly, planets within a system that are inclined at high angles to each
other are considered to be much less stable than a system where all the planets
revolve around their parent star within the same plane. From a common
sense point of view, this seems to be a truism. Furthermore, our current
models of planet formation involve proto-planetary disks, which are vast and
relatively flat clouds of gas revolving around young stars which eventually
condense down into planets. Again, we are left with the flat system where
planets revolve within a plane.
So, it is something of a surprise (and, for me, a big relief!) that a team of
astronomers led by Barbara McArthur of the University of Texas, have discovered
a extra-solar planetary system that is not remotely flat. The planets
appear to orbit at inclinations of 30 degrees to each other in the star system
Upsilon Andromedae A, which is located about 44 light years away. It is
part of a binary star system, and the planets in question are Jupiter-sized.
The star system has been around for a while, and one would have thought that
these inclined orbits would have been subject to the Kozai effect over time.
That's not to say that the effect is not useful in our understanding of orbital
systems. But, as with nature in general, complexity and diversity have a
way of surprising us. Inclined planetary systems clearly exist in
practice. Therefore, a Planet X body (even Jupiter-sized!) sharply
inclined to the Sun's planetary plane could indeed prove to be stable over a
long period of time.
Andy Lloyd, 25th May 2010
NASA "Out of Whack Planetary System Offers
Clues to a Disturbed Past", 24 May
2010, with thanks to David
A New Name for Nemesis?
As WISE continues its search for dim celestial objects in the infra-red
spectrum, astronomers have turned their thoughts to what they might call a brown
dwarf orbiting the Sun. For decades the moniker attached to such a body
has been Nemesis. However, that name brings with it connotations of
destruction and extinction-level events. As such, a new name has been
Kirkpatrick says that it's possible that WISE could find
an icy, Neptune-sized or bigger object in the far reaches of our solar system -
thousands of times farther from the sun than Earth. There is some speculation
amongst scientists that such a cool body, if it exists, could be a brown dwarf
companion to our sun. This hypothetical object has been nicknamed "Nemesis."
"We are now calling the
hypothetical brown dwarf Tyche instead, after the benevolent counterpart to
Nemesis," said Kirkpatrick. "Although there is only limited evidence to suggest
a large body in a wide, stable orbit around the sun, WISE should be able to find
it, or rule it out altogether"."
I like the name Tyche - it suggests a small companion, much as
a brown dwarf would be.
Image Credit: AMNH/UCB/NASA/JPL-Caltech
Based upon the limited number of brown dwarf discoveries made
so far, astrophysicists are now estimating that there may well be about 100
brown dwarfs within 25 light years yet to be discovered. It has been a
long-standing belief that there is a 50:50 chance that one or more brown dwarfs
may lie within 4 light years of us - making such objects potentially our nearest
1) Space Daily Staff Writers "The Coolest Stars Come Out Of The
Dark" 25th June 2010, with thanks to Ann and Peter, and David
Cassini Data Points to Planet
The Open Astronomy Journal has published what may be a very promising new paper
by an Italian astronomer named Lorenzo Iorio. In his paper, he sets out
data sent back to Earth from the Cassini probe that seems to imply the presence
of a massive, undiscovered companion to the Sun. The latest data from
Cassini, measuring Saturn's orbit around the Sun, indicates that there is a
precession effect in the gas giant's orbit. It is thought that this
recognised effect might be attributable to the existence of a substantial Planet
X body, whose location and size are open to debate (i.e. the larger the
companion object, the further it is away from the Sun).
In the paper's abstract, various distances are proposed. For a rocky,
terrestrial Planet X, the object would be located well beyond the Kuiper Belt.
For a gas giant/ small brown dwarf the distances involved increase to the inner
edge of the Oort Cloud of comets. This range sits well with my proposed
Dark Star parameters.
Even more striking is the contention that this body might lie in the direction
of the Galactic Core, which, once again, reflects my own proposals in my books:
"If X was directed towards a specific direction, i.e. that
of the Galactic Center, it would mimick the action of a recently proposed form
of the External Field Effect (EFE) in the framework of the MOdified Newtonian
Dynamics (MOND)". (1)
This is an exciting development, and perhaps indicates how these ideas are
gaining ground within the academic astronomical community.
Written by Andy Lloyd, 1st July 2010
Lorenzo Iorio "The Perihelion Precession of Saturn, Planet X/Nemesis and MOND" The Open Astronomy Journal, 3: 1-6. 2010, with thanks to Mattia
Nemesis and Extinction Cycles
A new scientific paper looking at the possible existence of Nemesis has come to
an unusual conclusion - the extinction event periodicity of 27 million years is
likely true, but that the set of intervals between events is too precise to be
due to a Dark Star. It is argued that the effect of passing stars etc.
would affect the Dark Star's orbit over time, leading to a more chaotic series
of intervals between extinction events on Earth over the last half a billion
"The cyclical extinctions do make a solid pattern, say
Adrian Melott of the University of Kansas and Richard Bambach of Smithsonian
Institution Museum of Natural History, whose paper is available through
arXiv.org (2). The two have gone back in the record to 500 million years ago,
further than any other researchers, and have confirmed the 27 million year cycle
at a 99 percent confidence.
"The problem, Nemesis fans, is that the cycle is too
precise, the researchers say. If these extinctions result from a dance between
our sun and Nemesis, the researchers note, the period of these mass extinctions
would change as other stars buffeted the pair and changed the courses of
Nemesis’s orbit around the sun. But the data indicates that the extinctions
occur every 27 million years, as regular as clockwork.
"Some scientists say that the sharply-defined
periodicity isn’t enough to rule out Nemesis. Richard Muller, an author of the
original Nemesis paper, told Wired.com that there is still hope for a dark
Which begs the question - if an extinction pattern has been proven, and works
like clockwork over millions of years, then what else could be the cause?
The solution must have an astronomical dimension, surely? It seems to me
that this paper merely enhances the chances that a Dark Star is lurking out
Written by Andy Lloyd, 14th July 2010
Joseph Calamia "Study: A Death Star Named Nemesis Isn’t to Blame for Mass
Extinctions" 13 July 2010,
with thanks to David
2) Melott A. & Bambach R. "Nemesis
Reconsidered", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society:
Letters, 407: L99-L102, July 2010
A Planet with a Tail
The discovery of a planet shedding its atmosphere like a comet is not a
particular surprise for astronomers. Ever since the so-called 'Hot
Jupiters' were found - gas giants orbiting their stars in just a few days - such
an effect has been acknowledged as highly likely. Now it's been confirmed
with the planet HD 209458b.
Image credit G. Bacon, NASA/ESA
Although this is not a 'Dark Star' scenario, the comet-planet is one of the
essentially ingredients of the Nibiru hypothesis: A planet with a
comet-like orbit periodically enters the solar system, shedding volatile gases
to the solar wind and creating a dramatic, red tail. Nibiru never gets
this close to the Sun, and Nibiru needs a tenable atmosphere even in the frigid
vacuum of the outer solar system, so direct comparisons cannot be made. But this
image supplied of a gas giant shedding its volatile atmosphere lends itself
beautifully to a Dark Star perihelion passage.
Written by Andy Lloyd, 17th July 2010
1) NASA "NASA Finds Super-Hot Planet with Unique
Comet-Like Tail" 15 July 2010
2) National geographic "Planet found with a comet-like tail" 17 July 2010 with thanks to John
More Dark Star Theory
Those were the words of my editor Lee Covino when he
recently came across the following item of astronomy news. Like many of my
helpful readers, he kindly sent this through to me. It's news of a brown
dwarf star found orbiting a relatively nearby Sun-like star. The system,
PZ Tel A (& now B), is quite young. Remarkably, the brown dwarf companion
follows an eccentric orbit, and is currently located at an equivalent distance
to the planet Uranus from the Sun (1).
"Lead author and UA
graduate Beth Biller said, "PZ Tel B travels on a particularly
eccentric orbit -- in the last 10 years, we have literally
watched it careen through its inner solar system. This can best
be explained by a highly eccentric, or oval-shaped, orbit."" (2)
This shows that much of what I have written in the past
about the feasibility of unusual brown dwarf binaries has been confirmed.
Brown dwarfs with eccentric orbits can, like comets, move close to the parent
stars during perihelion. This opens up the possibility that a Dark Star in
our own system could have done the same. Such a concept no longer seems
far-fetched at all.
Astronomers are interested to learn whether other planets
have been able to form in this system. On the face of it, the brown dwarf
would seem to make that job very difficult. But, as many of my long-time
readers would note with a wry smile, such early scientific proclamations about
brown dwarfs have been proven wrong before!
Written by Andy Lloyd, 30th July 2010
dwarf orbiting sun-like star discovered"
30th July 2010,
with thanks to Lee, Brian, Monika and Jeffrey
Cometary composition infers a Dark
One of my editors, Lee, has been keeping an eye on the comet composition
controversy. Some of the scant data that has been made available indicates
that the origin of outer solar system comets involves a birthplace much hotter
than current theory allows. The geological composition requires
temperatures in the thousands of degrees - and this is not possible in the
outer solar system, even during primordial times when there was a
proto-planetary disk. We think that this is due to the existence of an as-yet
unconfirmed binary companion in the shape of a sub-brown dwarf.
Anyway, Lee sent me an on-line excerpt from the book 'The Electric Universe',
by Wallace Thornhill and David Talbott, which is no doubt already familiar material for many
Image Credit: NASA/HST
The relevant excerpt is entitled 'Comet Material Born in Fire',
which can be found about half-way down the page in the Page 98 information
panel. It makes for some enlightening reading with respect to the possible
existence of a Dark Star out there:
"NASA’s celebrated Stardust
mission returned to Earth the first samples ever of comet dust. On January 2,
2004, the Stardust craft swept past Comet Wild 2, trapping particles as they
struck 'aerogel' in a 100- pound capsule. The capsule parachuted to a Utah
desert on January 15, 2006. Shockingly, the particles contained minerals
that can only be formed at temperatures of thousands of degrees. Mineral
inclusions ranged from anorthite, which is made up of calcium, sodium, aluminum
and silicate, to diopside, made of calcium magnesium and silicate.
How could this be? We
have been assured that comets are the leftovers of a cold 'nebular cloud' that
formed the solar system. This hypothesis has become an article of faith. Indeed,
the implication of a fiery cometary past was so unexpected that an early sample
of dust was thought to be contamination from the spacecraft." (1)
Written by Andy Lloyd, 30th July 2010
1) Wallace Thornhill and David Talbott "The
Electric Universe: Electric Comets Part 3" Mikamar Publishing
The Astrophysics of an Incoming
With two years to go before the end of the Mayan
Age, speculation about the arrival of a Planet X body remains high, despite the
lack of a sighting by either professional or amateur astronomers. Two
years may seem a lot, but in an astronomical sense it is a minute period of
time. Certainly, a substantial planet in an elliptical orbit would have to
be moving towards us at an extraordinary speed to cover the distance from a
remote point, where it has successfully evaded detection, to the inner solar
system in that time.
Indeed, the velocities required would mean that an
incoming Planet X object would be travelling so fast so as to achieve escape
velocity from the solar system. Don't believe me? Well, an
astrophysicist has been doing some calculations for an incoming stellar-sized
object. Bear in mind that he assumes a massive brown dwarf at 80 Jupiter
masses, rather than a Jupiter-like sub-brown dwarf of, say, 5 Jupiter masses.
But, even so, his calculations for its incoming speed is eye-watering to say the
"We analytically and numerically
investigate the possibility that a still undiscovered body X, moving along an
unbound hyperbolic path from outside the solar system, may penetrate its inner
regions in the next few years posing a threat to the Earth. By conservatively
using as initial position the lower bounds on the present-day distance dX of X
dynamically inferred from the gravitational perturbations induced by it on the
orbital motions of the planets of the solar system, both the analyses show that,
in order to reach the Earth's orbit in the next 2 yr, X should move at a highly
unrealistic speed v, whatever its mass MX is."
An incoming brown dwarf star would need to be
achieving speeds up to 10% of the speed of light. It's my opinion, and has
been all along, that there is no incoming Planet X object. It
remains a possibility (and I argue a strong possibility) that a sub-brown
dwarf lurks well beyond the Kuiper Belt, and nearer the distant comet clouds
circling the Sun. But it offers no direct threat to our planet. This
latest paper provides further hard evidence to be sceptical about a 2012/2013
Planet X 'event'.
Written by Andy Lloyd, 30th September 2010
Lorenzo Iorio "Is
it plausible to expect a close encounter of the Earth with a yet undiscovered
astronomical object in the next few years?" Submitted 7 September 2010, with thanks to Mattia
Habitable World Prediction Comes
My fictional work is a vehicle
to put forward some new insights and ideas. In "The Followers of Horus" I
have outlined how a world orbiting a Dark Star could provide an habitable
environment for life. Scientists discuss 'The Goldilocks Zone' - the rough
distance from a given star where liquid water on a planet's surface could
support life. The smaller the star, the nearer the planet must be to the
star to be within this habitable zone.
The Sun is technically a
'yellow dwarf', and lies on at the high end of the dwarf star spectrum. The next
down is a red dwarf, and a planet in its Goldilocks Zone has a much smaller
orbit than Earth. Brown dwarfs have closer zones still, and sub-brown
dwarfs, like the Dark Star I describe, have very close Goldilocks Zones -
almost like moons.
The closer planets get to their
parent stars, the more likely they will be 'tidally locked', like our Moon is to
the Earth. This means that the planet rotates on its axis over the same
time period as it rotates around the dwarf star. This is known as
'synchronous rotation'. The result of this is that one side of the planet
will face the dwarf star at all times.
That's why I predicted in "The
Followers of Horus" that a habitable planet circling the Dark Star would be
tidally locked. Funny, then, that an exciting new discovery in the
extensive Gliese 581 planetary system should involve a habitable world with
Gliese 581g bears the same
hallmark as my fictional account of the Anunnaki homeworld of Nibiru, as I've
described in "The Followers of Horus". For further details, including an extract
from the book, follow this link:
"The Followers of Horus"
Solar Storms and 2012
In a brand new article, I discuss the threat of
immense solar flares, like the one that occurred in 1859, and how the Dark
Star's presence in the solar system may have created a Grand Solar Cycle that
could produce 'the big one'. The effects upon our modern world would be
Solar Storms and 2012
The British Museum and Nin Puabi
A curator at the British Museum has replied to a
query about the remains of Nin Puabi, which were brought to the attention of the
late Zecharia Sitchin's readers this year. She says that there are only
fragments of the queen's skull remaining, and that they are not actually located
at the British Museum. You can read the full correspondence here:
'There Were Giants Upon
Human Species Identified
First we had Neanderthals in Europe and the Middle
East, then the Hobbit (Homo
Floresiensis) in Indonesia - now there's a new species of human to add
to the growing pile. They lived in Asia and have been named the 'Denisovans':
"Scientists say an entirely separate type of human
identified from bones in Siberia co-existed and interbred with our own species.
The ancient humans have been dubbed Denisovans after the caves in Siberia where
their remains were found. There is also evidence that this group was widespread
A study in Nature journal shows that Denisovans co-existed with Neanderthals and
interbred with our species - perhaps around 50,000 years ago. An international
group of researchers sequenced a complete genome from one of the ancient
hominins (human-like creatures), based on nuclear DNA extracted from a finger
I wonder what Zecharia Sitchin would have made of it? The pre-history of
humanity is getting more complicated all the time.
Written by Andy Lloyd, 24th December 2010
1) Pallab Ghosh "Ancient humans, dubbed 'Denisovans',
interbred with us" 22nd December 2010
and the Dark Star
I've talked about Robbie
Williams before, and his well-known interest in Ufology. As you will know,
he has re-joined pop band Take That and their new album is upon us. The
first single is called 'The Flood', and has a highly enigmatic lyric. I
can't reproduce the entire lyric, due to copyright reasons, but I think that the
following line is particularly noteworthy for readers of this website:
come now on a dark star, seeing demons, not what we are."
The song's lyric is unusual, to
say the least, and defies an easy explanation. What does it mean? A
lone reference to the Dark Star might be innocent enough, but the inclusion
of 'demons' makes this quite interesting to me.
Sumerologists believe that
the ancient Mesopotamians considered the Anunnaki to be demons. Given that
the Anunnaki are the denizens of the Dark Star system that I've written about
extensively, then this might be a hidden reference to the Dark Star Theory in
this popular song lyric. Furthermore, the title of the song itself -- The
Flood -- is potentially another reference to the Dark Star. In Sitchin's
discussion of the Flood, as described in early Mesopotamian myths, the Anunnaki
play a pivotal role in events on Earth at that time, and Nibiru (the Dark Star)
is the source of the catastrophic earth-changes that bring the Flood about.
Lots of this lyric point to an understanding of Sitchin's version of our ancient
Normally, I would just consider
this to be a bizarre coincidence - except that in this case Robbie Williams
might well be introducing esoteric ideas into this song. He's clearly into
Written by Andy Lloyd, 31st December 2010
All articles written by Andy Lloyd, 2010,
'The Dark Star'
(2005), 'Ezekiel One'
'The Followers of
'Darker Stars' (2019)
Dark Star Blog 2006-7
Dark Star Blog 2008